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As highly managed ecosystems, urban areas should reflect the social characteristics of their managers, who are primarily residents. Since landscape features develop over time, present-day vegetation should also reflect social characteristics of past residents. 1960 demographics and age of housing are better predictors of high woody or tree coverage in 1999 than demographics and housing characteristics from 2000.

CG Boone, ML Cadenasso, MJ Grove, K Schwarz, and Gl Buckley

Boone, Christopher G.; Cadenasso, Mary L.; Grove, J. Morgan; Schwarz, Kirsten; Buckley, Geoffrey L. 2010. Landscape, vegetation characteristics, and group identity in an urban and suburban watershed: why the 60s matter. Urban Ecosystem. 13: 255-271.

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