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By altering the type and arrangement of trees in a city (i.e., the urban forest structure), one can affect the city’s physical, biological, and socioeconomic environments.


David J. Nowak and John F. Dwyer

Nowak, D.J., and Dwyer, J.F. (1970). Understanding the benefits and urban forest ecosystem. Urban and Community Forestry in the Northeast, 25-46.

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