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Many urban waterways suffer from excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), feeding algal blooms, which cause lower water clarity and oxygen levels, bad odor and taste, and the loss of desirable species. Nutrient movement from land to water is likely to be influenced by urban vegetation.  Using urban forests can save cities between $2.2 million and $5.0 million per year.

Nidzgorski and Hobbie

Nidzgorski DA, Hobbie SE, 2016, Urban trees reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater, Ecological Applications, 26(5): 1566-1580.

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